UFR 3-01 References
Boundary layer interacting with wakes under adverse pressure gradient - NLR 7301 high lift configuration
Underlying Flow Regime 3-01 © copyright ERCOFTAC 2004
 Carlson, J.R., Duquesne, N., Rumsey, C.L., Gatski, T.B. Computation of turbulent wake flows in variable pressure gradient. Computer & Fluids, Vol. 30, 2001, pp. 161-187.
 Rumsey, C.L., Ying, S.X. Prediction of high lift: review of present CFD capability. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 38, 2002, pp. 145-180.
 Squire, L.C. Interactions between wakes and boundary-layers. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 26, 1989, pp. 261-288.
 Zhou, M.D, and Squire, L.C. The interaction of a wake with a turbulent boundary layer. The Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 89, 1985, pp.72-81.
 Liu, X., Thomas, F.O., Nelson, R.C. An experimental investigation of wake development in arbitrary pressure gradient. AIAA Paper 99-0677, 1999.
 Kyriakides, N.K., Kastrinakis, E.G., Nychas, S.G., Goulas, A. Proceedings Inst. Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 210, 1996, p. 167.
 Piomelli, U., Choudhari, M.M., Ovchinnikov V., Balaras, E. Numerical simulations of wake/boundary layer interactions. AIAA 2003-0975, 2003.
 Berg, B. van der. Boundary Layer Measurements on a Two-Dimensional Wing with Flap, NLR TR 79009 U, 1979.
 Haase, W. et al. EUROVAL - An European Initiative on Validation of CFD codes. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 42, 1992.
 Haase, W. et al. ECARP- European Computational Aerodynamics Research Projects: Validation of CFD Codes and Assessment of Turbulence Models. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 58, 1997.
 Marini M. and Paoli R. Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Through the use of a Database. Proceedings ECCOMAS 2001.
 Gooden J.H.M and Lent M. Hot-Wire Measurements in the Two-Dimensional Wing Wake above a Trailing Edge Flap at a Condition Close to Maximum Lift, NLR CR 91038 C (Restricted), 1991.
 Larsson, T. Separated and high-lift flows over single and multi-element airfoils. ICAS 94-5.7.3, 1994.
 Godin, P, Zingg, D.W., Nelson, T.E. High-lift Aerodynamic computations with one and two equation turbulence models. AIAA Journal Vol. 35, No 2, 1997.
 Baldwin, B.S., Lomax, H. Thin layer approximation and algebraic model for separated turbulent flows. AIAA-paper 78-257, 1978.
 Spalart, P.R., Allmaras, S.A. A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows. AIAA Paper 92-0439, 1992.
 Jones, W.P., Launder, B.E. The prediction of laminarization with a two-equation turbulence model.. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 15, 1972, pp. 301-314.
 Launder, B.E., Sharma, B.I. Application of the energy-dissipation model of turbulence to the calculation of flow near a spinning disc. Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 1, 1974, p. 131.
 Chien, K. Prediction of channel and boundary layer flows with a low Reynolds number turbulence model. AIAA Journal, Vol. 20, 1982, pp. 33-38.
 Lam, C.K.G., Bremhorst, K. A modified form of the k-ε model for predicting wall turbulence. Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 103, 1981, pp. 456-460.
 Menter, F.R. Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, 1994, pp. 1598-1605.
 Granville, P.S. Baldwin-Lomax factors for turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients. AIAA Journal Vol. 25, 1987, pp. 1624-1627.
 Cebeci, T. and Smith, A.M.O. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers. Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics XV, Academic Press, 1974.
24] Kalitzin, G., Gould, A.R.B and Benton, J.J. Application of two-equation turbulence models in aircraft design, AIAA Paper 96-0327, 1996.
 Speziale, C.G., Abid, R. and Anderson, E.C. Critical evaluation of two-equation models for near wall turbulence. AIAA Journal, Vol. 30, 1992, pp. 324-331.
 Wolfshtein, M. The velocity and temperature distribution in one-dimensional flow with turbulence augmentation and pressure gradient. Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 12, 1969, p. 139.
 Shih, T-H., Zhu, J. and Lumley, J.L. A realisable Reynolds stress algebraic model. NASA TM 105993, 1993.
 An. A Selection of Experimental Test Cases for the Validation of CFD Codes. AGARD AR 303, 1994.
Appendix A: Figures from ECARP 
Remark: the figures are scanned from the ECARP Book , and use the figure numbering and captions of the original text.
|Reference in Figures||Turbulence Model|
|C+W||Chien + Wolfshtein k-ε|
|C+LSC||Chien k-ε + length scale correction|
|M+SST||Menter (incl SST correction)|
|SJL-W+SST||Above + SST|
|SLZ-W||Shih-Lumley-Zhu-Wolfshtein non-linear k-ε|
Appendix B: Figures from Godin 
© copyright ERCOFTAC 2004
Contributors: Jan Vos - CFS Engineering SA