Structure of the Knowledge Base

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Introduction to the Knowledge Base

The test cases are application centred, facilitating the identification of appropriate knowledge and advice for specific industrial purposes. They are organised around:


  • Application Areas
  • Underlying Flow Regimes
  • Direct Numerical Simulations


Application Areas (AC)

The application area section contains articles of specific interest to particular sector disciplines such as: Built Environment, Chemical and Process Engineering, External Aerodynamics, Turbomachinery, Combustion and Heat Transfer, Environmental Flows and Biomedical Flows.

Each Application Area is comprised of Application Challenges (AC) which are realistic industrial test cases used to judge the competency and limitations of CFD for a given Application Area.


Underlying Flow Regimes (UFR)

These are generic, well studied test cases capturing important elements of the key flow physics encountered across the Application Areas.


Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS)

These are test cases providing statistical data from high-fidelity calculations, primarily Direct Numerical Simulations but also near-DNS Large Eddy simulations.


Content of the Knowledge Base


The content of each Application Challenge (AC) test case and Underlying Flow Regimes (UFR) test case article within the Knowledge Base consists of an:

  • Abstract - Summary of content
  • Description - Introduction to test case and physical phenomena involved, (for ACs also practical importance and parameters of interest, and for UFRs review of previous studies).
  • Test Case Studies - Description of test case experiments and CFD simulations (and provision of data and CFD results for ACs, and also for some UFRs)
  • Evaluation - Comparison of CFD calculations with test case experiments
  • Best Practice Advice

The content of each Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) test case article also consists of an Abstract, Introduction to the physical phenomena, a brief review of previous studies and then:

  • Test case description with geometry and boundary conditions
  • Computational details
  • Quantification of resolution
  • Results of simulation with discussion


The AC articles are expected to have, and should contain, links to detailed data files for all experimental and CFD results according to the guidelines set out here. In the UFR articles it is sufficient to present the data as plots, although it is highly desirable to provide links to associated databases where these are available. The templates for compiling AC, UFR and DNS articles can be found in the Template Library. For DNS test cases data should be provided for the desirable and minimum quantities listed according to the guidelines set out here.


For a full index of all the Application Challenge, Underlying Flow Regimes and DNS test case articles within the Knowledge Base please click on the following links:


AC Index

UFR Index

DNS Index